Mathematical anxiety and the Zone of Proximal Development


  • Kyriakos Petakos


Mathematical anxiety, Zone of Proximal Development, Sociocultural theory, Teaching mathematics


In the recent article mathematical anxiety in a group of junior students is discussed. These students have just entered tertiary education in the field of Hotel Management and have to deal with Business mathematics during their first semester. A question regarding mathematical anxiety is posed to them by the instructor. Their answers are written down and a sociocultural analysis ensues based on the renowned Vygotsky’s theory.


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Kozulin, A., (2015). Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Second Edition (pp. 322-328).

Petakos, K., (2016). Comparing fractions at the age of 11 through the use of the zone of proximal development. Experiences of Teaching with Mathematics, Sciences and Technology (2), 2 (pp. 369375).

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Vygotsky, L., (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.




How to Cite

Petakos, K. (2019). Mathematical anxiety and the Zone of Proximal Development. EDiMaST: Experiences of Teaching With Mathematics, Sciences and Technology, 4, 601–607. Retrieved from



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